Temporal Trends in Suicidal Ideation and Attempts Among US Adolescents by Sex and Race/Ethnicity, 1991-2019
Xiao, Y., Cerel, J., & Mann, J. J. (2021).
The findings of this study show apparent sex and racial/ethnic differences in trends in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Increases in suicidal ideation since 2009 were observed in female individuals; changes in male and Black adolescents represented the largest increase in the prevalence of suicide attempts between 1991 and 2019. Evidence-based suicide prevention programs need to be tailored by sex and race/ethnicity, calling for greater diversification of health care system, school, and community prevention approaches.
People affected by suicide attempts: frequency, impact, and perceived support
Hvidkjær, K. L., Ranning, L , A., Madsen, T., Fleischer, E., Eckardt , J. P., Nordentoft , M., Cerel, J. & Erlangsen, A. (2021).
Suicide attempt affects a substantial share of the population, and it might be relevant to ensure that support is available for those exposed perceived to be in need of support.
A comparison of farmer and non-farmer suicides from the United States National Violent Deaths Reporting System, 2003-2016
Kennedy, A. J., Cerel, J., Kheibari, A. & Watts, J. (2021).
Farmers are at higher risk of suicide than other occupations and the general population. The complex suicide risk factors have not been examined in a large, population-wide study across a significant time period. This observational study draws on existing data from the United States’ National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), including 140,523 farming- or non-farming-related suicide decedents between 2003 and 2016 from across 40 states. “Farming-related” decedents included 2,801 suicides. Farmers had higher odds of being male, older, less well-educated, and American Indian/Alaska Native. Farmers had higher odds of using firearms and—when farmers used a gun—higher odds of using a long-arm weapon. Farmers had lower odds of having a known mental health condition or job problem, and lower odds of having made a previous suicide attempt or leaving a suicide note. Findings highlight the complexity of suicide risk within the context of farming in the United States and reinforce the need for tailored prevention efforts; employing means restriction of firearms; and emphasizing that traditional risk factors may not be as common in the farming population.
Suicide Exposure in Crisis Workers
Long, M.M., Cerel, J., Aldrich, R.S. Kheibari, A. (2021).
Over a third of participants (33.9%, n = 37) reported that they had lost at least one client to suicide, with an average of 2.30 clients (SD = 4.47) lost to suicide. Over three quarters (77.1%, n = 81) of study participants reported they had experienced at least one personal loss to suicide. Those who perceived their relationship to the personal suicide as close or very close had significantly greater PTSD symptoms (M = 3.29, SD = 2.23) than those who perceived their relationship as not at all close, not close, or somewhat close (M = 1.38, SD = 1.69), t(20) = −2.10, p = .049.
Suicide Exposure in Transgender and Gender Diverse Adults
Cerel, J., Tucker, R.P, & Snow, A. (2020).
Exposure to the suicidal behavior of close others is prevalent in TGD individuals: over half of participants were close to someone who attempted suicide, more than in population-based studies of suicide exposure. Exposure appears to have a potential effect on recent indicators of psychological distress and suicide risk, which is important to consider when working in TGD communities.
Rates of exposure to natural, accidental, and suicide deaths
Nadorff, M.R., DeShong, H.L., Golding, S., Cerel, J., McDaniel, C.J., Pate, A.R., Kelley, K., & Walgren, M.D. (2021).
Overall, the current study presents updated prevalence rates of exposure to various types of death and replicates previous findings of a decrease in willingness to disclose suicides when compared with other causes of death.
Occupational Suicide Exposure and Impact on Mental Health: Examining Differences across Helping Professions. OMEGA
Aldrich, R. S., & Cerel, J. (2020).
College students have poor knowledge of suicide facts; however, this low level of accurate knowledge was not associated with intention to intervene with a suicidal person. Attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, sex, and no previous suicide attempt were all significant predictors of intention to intervene.
Suicide notes: Assessing their impact on the bereaved
Feigelman, W., Sanford, R. S. & Cerel, J, (2019).
We found no significant differences in mental health outcomes between those who received suicide notes and those who had not; nor were differences noted between those whose notes contained helpful or unhelpful information and those who had not received such information.
Public health surveillance of youth suicide attempts: Challenges and opportunities
Singleton, M.D., Frey, L. M., Webb, A., & Cerel, J. (2019).
We estimated 943 students reporting a suicide attempt for every suicide death, a result that is higher than previous estimates for youth. Self-reported suicide attempts resulting in medical treatment were 7.5 times higher than self-injuries reported in claims records.